APA Citation Style

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  • APA Guidelines

    Based on The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition, c2010.

    Formatting Your APA Paper

    • Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11")
    • 1" margins on all sides.
    • Use a clear font that is highly readable. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font.
    • All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.
    • Use only one space after punctuation. 
    • All the pages should include a page header (also known as the "running head".  The running header is a shortened version of your paper's title at the top of every page).  Achieve this by inserting a page header. It cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.
    • To create a page header/running head:
      • Insert page number flushed right on all the pages
      • Then type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left using all capital letters.


    Major Paper Sections:

    Your essay should include four major sections: the Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References

    Title page: 

    • On top include the Running Header & Page Number (as mentioned above)
    • Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page.  APA recommendations- your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. 
    • Beneath the title, type the author's name: first name, middle initial(s), and last name. Do not use titles (Dr.) or degrees (Ph.D.). 
    • Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation, which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.

    Abstract page:

    Begin a new page. Should include the page header (described above). On the first line of the abstract page, Type “Abstract” (Regular text).  Align to the center. 

    Main Body:

    In-text (Parenthetical) Citations in APA:

    What is a parenthetical citation in APA?: Parenthetical citations are citations to original sources that appear in the text of your paper. A complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.  

    Where to put the parenthetical citations?: Place parenthetical citations at the end of the sentence you are paraphrasing and quoting  When using APA format, follow the author’s last name-date method of in-text citation. For example, The destruction of the Argentine is due to many socio-economic factors (Taylor 33).

    • Special Note about In-Text Citations for Reprinted Essays: Cite both years in your in-text citations, like this: (Last Name, newest year/oldest year) (Milgram, 2007/1973)

    APA Works Cited Reference Page

    • Under the running header type- Reference in the center of the page
    • Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper 
    • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
    • Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors.
    • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
    • Capitalize all major words in journal titles 
    • Same Author, Different Works:
      • List in chronological order, oldest source first.
      • If both sources are from the same year, list them in alphabetical order by title.

    Barkley, R. A. (2006). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical workbook (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Barkley, R. A. (2008). ADHD in adults: What the science says. New York: Guilford Press.

    Books (APA style)

    Last name, First Initial. (Year). Title of book: Capital letter for the beginning of subtitle. (Edition if other than 1st). Place: Publisher.

    • Book with One Author Brader, T. (2006). Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    • Two Authors Elder, L. & Paul, R. (2006).The miniature guide to the art of asking essential questions. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.
    • Three Authors Miller, T. E., Bender, B. E., & Schuh, J. H. (2005). Promoting reasonable expectations: Aligning student and institutional views of the college experience. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    • Book with Corporate Author American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.


    Essays or Chapters within Edited Books (APA Style)

    Essays published for the first time:

    Essay Author's Last name, First Initial. (Year). Essay title. In Editor's First Initial Last Name (Ed.),  Book title (pp. # - #). Place: Publisher.

    • Weinman, J. & Kleinfield, J. (2006). Do schools perpetuate a gender bias? In W. Traverner (Ed.), Taking sides: Clashing views on controversial issues in human sexuality (pp. 114-120). Dubuque, IA: McGraw-Hill Education.

    Essays reprinted from another source (e.g., in an anthology):

    Essay Author's Last name, First Initial. (Year of book). Essay title as given in the book. In Editor's First Initial Last Name (Ed.), Book title (pp. # - #). Place: Publisher. (Reprinted from Name of Journal, Year, Volume#, page#-page#)

    • Milgram, S. (2007). The perils of obedience. In W. F. Schulz (Ed.), The phenomenon of torture: Readings and commentary (pp. 110-119). Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. (Reprinted from Harper's, December 6, 1973, 246, 62-66, 75-77)


    Encyclopedias (APA style)

    Author's Last name, First Initial. (Year). Article Title. In Encyclopedia Title. (Vol. #, pp.# - #). Place: Publisher.

    • Signed article (author given): Perez, Jr., L. (2005). Cuba. In The World Book Encyclopedia. (Vol. 4, pp. 1168-1179). Chicago: World Book.
    • Unsigned article (no author was given): Cuba. (2005). In The world book encyclopedia. (Vol. 4, pp. 1168-1179). Chicago: World Book.


    Periodicals, Journals, and Newspapers (APA style) 

    Last name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume#(Issue#), Page#-#.

    • Magazine Article Tumulty, K. (2006, April 10). Should they stay or should they go? Time, 167(15), 3-40.
    • Journal Article Knotts, H. G. & Haspel, M. (2006). The impact of gentrification on voter turnout. Social Science Quarterly, 87(1), 110-121.
    • Newspaper Article Chavez, L. (2006, March 30). American dreams, foreign flags. The New York Times, pp. A25.


    Online Databases (APA style)

    Last name, First Initial. (the year of publication). Article title (capitalized the first word of the title). Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title (Italicize the name of the journal), if there is a subtitle then add a colon after the main title and capitalize the first word of the subtitle after the colon, Volume#(Issue#), Page#-#. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from doi:0000000/000000000000 or URL Address 

    • Article -  Douthat, R. (2006, January/February). Peace on earth. The Atlantic Monthly, 297(1), 50. Retrieved April 10, 2006, from InfoTrac OneFile database.
    • Article Abstract - Author's Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. Abstract retrieved from URL of database homepage


    Web Sites (APA style)

    Author's last name, First initial OR Institution, Company, or Organization Responsible for the Website. (Year, Month Day of content). Title of the article. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

    LD Online. (2006). Speech and language milestone chart. Retrieved April 11, 2006, from http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/speech-language/lda_milestones.html


    Video and DVD (APA style)

    Producer's Last Name, First Initial (Producer), & Director's Last Name, First Initial (Director). (Year). Video title [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Name of Movie Studio.

    • Fiction Video Bregman, M., Elfand, M. (Producers), & Lumet, S. (Director). (2006). Dog day afternoon [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Home Video.
    • Non-Fiction Video Harrison-Hansley, M. & Sussman, A. (Producers). (2005). Living with ADHD [DVD]. Available from http://www.films.com


    Electronic Images (APA style)

    Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL (address of website)

    Kulbis, M. (Photographer). (2006). Men pray [Photograph], Retrieved April 12, 2006, from http://accuweather.ap.org/cgi-bin/aplaunch.pl

    • Electronic Image (No Author) (APA style) Title of work [Type of work]. (Year image was created). Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL (address of website) Japanese Geisha [Photograph]. (2006). Retrieved April 10, 2006, from http://www.bergoiata.org/fe/divers28/10.html
    • Electronic Image (No Author, No Title, No Date) (APA style) Many images found on the Web are of this category, but you should still look for this missing information: try clicking on the image, and/or looking at the bottom of the image. [Subject and type of work]. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL (address of website) [Untitled photograph of a baby chimpanzee]. Retrieved April 12, 2006, from http://perso.wanadoo.fr/jdtr/struc/chimp3.html

    APA guide was adapted from the guide from Landmark College Library, updated for the 6th edition ( ©2010)